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Second American Revolution
Home Up Legacies of Change European Background Slavery and the Negro King James to Jamestown Thames River to Jamestown James Island to Jamestown Caribbean Cousins IDEAS OF REVOLUTION Braddock's Grave American Revolution Timeline Signers of the Declaration of In First American Revolution Washington's Army George Washington Letter The Loyal Blacks Revolutionary Choices James River to James Buchanan James River to Missus Jane Native American Factoring Easter Spring Forward Movements Second American Revolution Logic of Ideology

Mary Lee Brady, Ph.D.

Old News - Jefferson
Old News -- Lincoln
Old News - Richmond
Old Church History
RICHMOND is Fallen
New York Times, April 1865
Babylon Is Fallen, Again
Black Laws Summary
The Formative Years
The Bloods
Frederick Douglass, Pre-Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation
Civil War Service by Population
Messianic Christians
Army of the Shenandoah
The American Negro
Black Man's Challenge
Recrimination Proclamation
Integration Proclamation
Psychological Warfare
Post Civil War Years









All successful revolutions begin with indoctrinated beliefs and values that foster functional strategies, planning and programming of short-term, mid-term and long-term functions that move a body of believers toward their stated goals/prize.  

The Second American Revolution began by men like Richard Allen was a functional faith movement into era of Dr. Martin Luther King, spanning five Generations  of functional believers generated by doctrine  of:

First American Revolution movement by a decided minority of courageous men espoused in its original document of 1776 that "all men are created equal" essentially joining their reasons  to beliefs/faith in divine creation of all men. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. 

                            Signers of Declaration of Independence

An amazing achievement in human history with a light that shined all over the world; yet, within a matter of four years after victory was won over Great Britain and independence gained victors who soon disconnected reasoning from divine creation they professed to believe in. The founding fathers of the republic like George Washington, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson compromised their morality in the cause of personal liberty for the sake of reasoning power not joined to empowerment/functional faith. Within their lifetimes, they would live to see and hear the consequences of what was yet to come.

                        List of signers of the United States Constitution

The U.S. Constitution enacted in 1787 was an amazing feat of lawyers more akin to the Roman Empire that began as a republic and transformed itself into the world's greatest slave owning empire.  The Second American Revolution was a reaction to what many freemen perceived would transform America by multiplying numbers of people enslaved.  It historically began in 1787, when the new Congress enacted a federal constitution drafted by slave-owners and lawyer representatives like James Madison and James Monroe cleverly disconnecting functional Christian faith, etched in the Declaration of Independence, from their logic in declaring by statutory law "men were not equal."  Richard Allen viewed them as constitutional lawyers, not founding fathers.

Enslaved men were  codified as three-fifths of a person (non-Voting) counted for purposes of determining the number of state  representatives in Congress (assuring slave holding states a functional majority).  Black men were counted by their owners but not allowed to vote or voice their self-interests about any matter anytime, anywhere including growing food to feed themselves and their families.  

And, in so doing all people of African heritage were classified as property or potential property in the states that accepted them to be slaves. The constitution like the British stamp and tea acts a mere 20 years before, inspired many free men of African heritage to oppose it and inspire courageous run-away slaves which in turn prompted Congress to pass the Fugitive Slave Act of 1790 with the rationale of protecting property rights.  Chattel slavery was a reality of bad news cited as good among men with functional power that believers like Richard Allen and a lot White fellow believers, that such could only to be overcome by empowerment of "the least of us in Christ."

But, it was the [60th Generation] of believers like Richard Allen redefining teachings of Jesus Christ that generated [61st Generation] births of courageous gifted young men and women like Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman:  giving substance to Second Revolutionary spirit that spanned the 19th century and first half of the 20th century.  The first American Revolution had proven to the world of gifted and talented that not all oppressed and/or enslaved people had to be inspired or motivated.  Jefferson's declaration assured that more revolutions would follow.

Just the talented tenth in the Haitian and French Revolutions that soon followed suit. New generation artists and writers who seek understanding might want to take a few days reading the National Park Service research studies  publication about below beginnings with Jamestown in 1619.  It confirms our perception that generations are about revolutions beginning with Jesus HIMSELF with reasoning joined to faith.


The activated minority, about 10 percent, including young men who cared to follow leadership like George Washington, an amazing figure in human history. At an early age, he had been inspired, motivated and educated with hard core skills in travel and geography to survey lands in, near and far from his Virginia home; and rose to the rank of a Virginia militia colonel along with fellow officers like John Lee, born abt 1724

He proved his vast physical and mental superiorities to himself and ruling aristocrats during the French and Indian War of 1754-1763 that doubled the size of British colonies in North America and the Caribbean.  When rebellion erupted a decade later, there was no doubt that it would be him to lead fighting against the famed British lion that dominated much of the world.  It was revolutionary thinking; and when he had won, his opponent King George, acknowledged his feat.

Most American colonists watched and waited though sympathetic to the revolutionary cause to give them freedom to be free of British laws, dream and occupy more Native American lands across the Allegheny Mountains and even Canada.  Men enslaved dared to dream of freedom. By years 1787-1790 with passage of the new the United States Constitution and enactment of the Fugitive Slave Law, it was apparent to believers like William Lee and his wife Margaret Thomas that men and women of color were not viewed to be equal. 

Three hundred thousand men (including William Lee, born abt 1756, Henry Hill of Ohio, born 1753, Bennett McCoy, abt 1755, James McCoy, abt 1757 and thousands of other men of African and women like Margaret Thomas Lee, born abt. 1760) had fought against the British Empire to secure blessings of liberty but the new congress of mostly greedy lawyers had used their given powers to rule "All hogs are equal, but some hogs are more equal than other hogs"  

                            Animal Farm (1954 - Cartoon) George Orwell - YouTube

Excited further by the vast new land prospects and perceived labor needs, the same group of lawyers two years later in 1790 then crafted a law making it illegal for men to escape in search of liberty.  Clearly stated, Black slaves were property and not to be viewed as anything more by men of any other means who wanted their free labor.  It was truly the worst of times, as men like John Adams threw down their ideals to the reasoning that slavery was not anti-Christ. The inspiration for personal liberty had to be born again by fathers and mothers and in Christ it was [61st and 62nd Generation], not by reasoning and laws crafted by lawyers.

                                                        Jeffersonian Overview

In fact, by year 1800, it was clear to many adults of color living in presence of great leaders like Adams, Jefferson, Franklin, Hamilton and Washington that revolutionary thoughts began with beliefs in GOD Almighty; and the enacted constitution betrayed such, by excluding the God inspired declaration written by Jefferson from being an article in the basic law (constitution).  American liberty thus did not legally include property rights of Native Americans or personal liberty for people held as slaves and indentured servants.  It was an amazing feat of moral failure by founders.  

Lawyers like Massachusetts puritan descendent (Congregationalist) John Adams and Virginia born Anglican James Madison; had reasoned together with new words putting new wine into old bottles that burst within two generations of functional believers born, nurtured, inspired, motivated and educated in the faith.

                        Matthew 917 KJV - Neither do men put new wine into old bottles.

Yes, there were many Black slave owners in Africa, Caribbean and the Americas, including United States, behind cotton, fruit, sugar and other plantation curtains. And godless behavior prevailed to hold men, women and children in bondage for life due to the facts of their births or purchase contracts.  And African degenerates welcomed more of the same shame that can not be ignored or overlooked by new generation writers.

We should never forget that slavery in America began in Africa where the evil values that sent us to bondage by others continued so long as ruthless men and women had the power to do so.  Indeed, slavery was always about power, ... not simply color or gender.  In fact, color is and was the least common denominator for judging slaves and slave-owners since not all were all Black or all White. 

And many Native Americans such as the Cherokee tribes in the Piedmont region of Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia purchased and owned African slaves to labor in their fields until President Andrew Jackson took away their lands and removed them across the Mississippi River.

And, when the Civil War erupted many Cherokee served in the Confederate forces based on Jefferson Davis promises to give them back some of their ancestral lands in the southeast taken away by President Jackson.

                         Cherokee Confederate Military Units

And, less anyone should ever forget, not all people of African heritage were ever the same color even in Africa way back then or now!  In fact, Africans were of all colors, sizes, attitudes and behaviors known to humanity. Jews and Romans condemned and crucified Jesus but remember that more of HIS disciples were murdered in Africa than in Asia or Europe.  Evil is not bound by locations, color or sex of the predators or victims.  Slavery by the Hebrews in Africa, enslavement of the Slavs in Hellenist Greece, and equivalent suffering by millions in the Roman, Aksum, Ghana and Moslem Empires did not lessen the sin in eyes that viewed it in America and Caribbean.  Slavery was bad news, and never the good news espoused by Jesus Christ.

And, chattel slavery or any other kind that categorized and classified human beings as property or deprived adults of personal liberty has to be viewed as anti-Christ:  regardless of whether the offender was White or Black in fact or fancy before, during or after the Civil War.  We think it matters a lot in attempts to comprehend slavery and who rebelled against it.  For Pauline Christian believers, perhaps the first great fight was against those who argued that Apostle Paul had approved of slavery urging slaves to be obedient to their masters.  Abolitionist countered by citing Jesus.

                                                Christianity and slavery

Many scholars have attempted to rationalize the existence of slavery anywhere or everywhere by not joining it to the beliefs and faiths they profess to have existed with their own ancestors.  Such writers refuse to acknowledge that slavery included bonded servitude and was immoral in effects and intents in the teachings of Jesus Christ, not to be confused with Saul/Paul whose Jewish family were slave owners. 

                                         BLACK SLAVE OWNERS

The true Second American Revolution was surely about the cause of personal liberty espousing human rights versus profiteering set forth as property rights (including African Kings who viewed their subjects and others as royal property).  Both sides cited the roles of government in securing their rights against those who would deny one in the name of the other.  Most African-American scholars unanimously agree with Frederick Douglass that personal liberty is an end in itself; and, religious ideology should not and must never ever supersede it.  Let any person with a known ancestor who wanted to be a slave say so and tell the world why? 

Responding to a challenge question generated by Sojourner Truth, ... Frederick Douglass argued that since God was not dead, the hated institution of  slavery would be ended in mass blood-shed.  It has always been a matter of faith among many descendents of slaves that divine intervention did at least incite a revolution of good versus evil. 

Most slave owners and traders, both Christians and Jews, were believers in God and most like Robert E. Lee perceived their cause was the Word of God.  And, we dare proclaim that if there was no intervention of God as many scholars would argue, .... Lee would likely have triumphed at Gettysburg and Hitler victorious in Europe.  And, also Japan in the Pacific.

The great question is what do you dare believe about your victory?   How do you join your own reasoning to your own faith about the unknown but yet believed?  What seemingly matters for writer to explore is that men like Douglass, Lincoln and other leaders born in the same era/generation emerged from nothingness sort of akin to the favorite story about Moses in which believers can wonder was he sent or just happened to be born?


                    Founders Constitution

The first American Revolution waged in the last quarter of the 18th century established the principle that people anywhere ought have the God given collective right to organize and change unjust governments imposed over them by hereditary or otherwise aristocratic processes.  English Tudor Kings and Queens beginning with Henry II rebelled against beliefs that a priest, bishop, cardinal or pope were God's viceroys on earth or interpreters of divine rights of kings and queens. To be sure about it, the English Revolution of 1688 agitated by scholars like John Locke and executed by soldiers such as Oliver Cromwell, ... devastated the ancient ideology of divine rights of kings and queens; and was an enlightenment and inspiration for men like Thomas Jefferson born in later generations.   

John Locke

English philosopher John Locke was a founder of empiricism, a school of philosophy based on the belief that knowledge comes from everyday experience, scientific observation, and common sense, rather than from the application of reason alone. Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) portrays each individual as a blank slate. The person’s experiences become notations on the slate and make each individual distinct from other people.  Hulton Deutsch  Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Locke had written that government comes into existence because of life, liberty and property; and, Jefferson modified this thought by the phrase life, liberty and pursuit of happiness.  Neither Locke or Jefferson had in mind "the least of us" but once written the words remained to inspire millions of people not yet born, and many millions more in places like France where aristocratic wealth ruled "the least of us" who were little more than serfs in the land of their birth.  The French Revolution gave birth to the reactionary movement of aristocrats in England and elsewhere including America who were determined that what happened in France and Haiti should not engulf them and their titled property interests.   

Thomas Jefferson feared and predicted that what did occur after his death would happen in America or any place and time wherein the rights of mankind are denigrated by governments.  People always rebel, and with a God-given gifted child like himself or even Moses and Lincoln will be successful. 

He had seen and heard the birth of revolution against aristocracy in France, ... that he helped inspire; and, knew for certain the Haitian Revolution was a precursor to the violence that would ultimately end slavery  because it was immoral and unjust.  Many men of lesser minds and intellect in Europe and America hoped it was not so.  British and American conservatism were born as a reaction against rebellions and sought powers of both church and state to prevent it. 

                                                The Slave Trade

Thus did they evolve a Judeo-Christian ideology wherein both Jewish, Catholic and Protestant believers in God were able to rationalize the slave trade and slavery as not only moral but legitimate.  Men like John Randolph (below) of Virginia rationalized slavery without addressing the essence of cruelty, greed, profit, suffering and other reasons; more self-evident to his cousins like Madison Hemings Jefferson, born 1805 who though personally spared from the whips and lash marks of slavery nevertheless knew about it.  Like all children born in slavery and of slave environments and societies, Madison Hemings and his siblings had cousins and friends who experienced the harsh realties of slavery, often sales to distant plantation owners at best. 

Hemings bred relatives of Madison were certainly moved or sold to and by Randolph and other families that relocated to the rich soils of places like Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina and even Texas.  It is ludicrous to imagine any child not mourning the loss of a friend or cousin to whom they were emotionally attached. 

The southern custom of breeding slaves also bred a deep hatred of the institution and in time by the 1850s, ... the pot had over-boiled into the scourge of run-away and abolition activity that plagued slave owners.  There were over 50,000 officially documented attempted runaway attempts by slaves, even though most were caught or died in their attempts. Realities were that many mothers and fathers hopelessly enslaved for life and pending sale away from their families, functionally encouraged young daughters and sons to attempt escapes.                                  

In desperation, plantation owners pressured Congress to pass the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 to force northern law enforcement officers to help them capture, hold and surrender fugitive slaves among the nearly half-million Blacks and Mulattoes in northern states like Ohio and Pennsylvania.  The law made free men though legally free always subject to being kidnapped and carried back into the south as slaves.

The revolution against chattel slavery surely matured in the movement of men and women with beliefs such as personified by Harriet Tubman.  She embodied all that Thomas Jefferson and other revolutionaries would have admired.  Her many years of going into dens of mortal sins (slave owners) represented more than simply leading 300 slaves to freedom.  Frederick Douglass viewed her functional faith to be unmatched by any and all abolitionists including himself.  He understood that most people, free or slave, are endowed with courage but Harriet Tubman not only had it so evidently joined to her faith in Jesus Christ. 

She had single-handedly accomplished during the 1850s what slave-owners feared most:  the loss of fear among their slaves. Like young John Mark who preached "We have the victory, Christ is risen" she also evoked overcoming fear of the Romans.  Indeed, there were so many thousands of runaway slaves living in the scattered Virginia Peninsula that Robert E. Lee advised the newly established confederate government to abandon efforts to retake it.  Some estimates were that upwards of 25,000 on the eastern shores of Maryland and Virginia were escaped slaves.

She demonstrated that fear among slaves could be overcome in name of the Living Christ by "stealing away to Jesus."  Her humility and determination as a lifelong believer in a Living Christ was very functional and effective in keeping hope alive and helping to inspire tens of thousands that generated the 200,000 young men who served in the great cause of Christian salvation preceding emancipation that manifested victory in Christ.  John Mark was righteous and right!

                                youtube music steal away to jesus - Bing video

 Harriet Tubman once staged a sit-in to get $20. The Treasury just gave her all of them. 

But, plantation preachers and all the sheriffs and deputies and deputized "night riders and regulators" along with thousands of bounty hunters could not put "humpty dumpty together again."


Wealth creation in the new world including Central America, North America, South America and the Caribbean Islands was rooted and rationalized in the enslavement of Africans. 

The French rebellion gave heart to the enslaved residents of Jamaica and other locations like Haiti where a relatively small number of French plantation aristocrats ruled over a mass of Black misery that eventually exploded. 

In fact, Haiti was the jewel of French overseas possessions and with its production of numerous slave labor products, including gold, coffee, sugar and various citrus fruits for metropolitan France markets.  

                                 THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION

American slave plantation owners allied with slave trade bankers, breeders, shippers, and traders viewed themselves as aristocrats and were horrified by the thought of rebellion by their slaves who a slave holding society had rationalized via an amazing twist of Judeo-Christian ideology to be property rather than human beings in the body and spirit of Jesus Christ.

Most southerner leaders in the pulpits and politics  were determined to not only keep slavery in the name of states' rights but also to expand it into the new states being formed west of the Mississippi River.  But, there were many southerners who opposed the course of action being pursued that would engulf the nation in a Civil War the south was destined to lose as they did. 

River in West Virginia
Several major rivers form the majority of West Virginia’s borders. In addition, large rivers such as the Kanawha and the Monongahela traverse the state. West Virginia has no natural large bodies of water; the only major lakes have been formed by dams on rivers.  In Stock/Photo Researchers, Inc.

The great state of Virginia was almost equally divided with poor dirt farmers in the west generally in opposition to aristocratic secession attitudes that dominated public attitudes to the east where slave breeding had become the largest and richest industry in Virginia exceeding by volume and price the production of animals and farm crops such as corn and tobacco. 

In fact, the war of secession had no chance of success without Virginia which in the years prior to 1861, had not only helped create the other southern states with Black and White residents but also supplied most of the agricultural products from corn and potatoes to chickens and hogs. Virginia afforded cotton belt plantations with reasoning to concentrate in putting nearly all their acreage and slaves in raising their greatly romanced and fabled export crop.                                                                

                KING COTTON

Cotton was king and fertile slaves the queens for breeding more slaves to work more land taken from the forcibly displaced Cherokee and Seminole Native Americans in the name of guns and laws. 

The slave raids, trades and slavery whether in Africa, Asia, the high seas, the Americas, Caribbean or Europe, .... were abominations and ought not be glorified as a benevolent form of goodness by men and women who engaged in it. 

Modern metaphors such as "Put lipstick on a pig but it is still a pig" best describe wondrous writers and artists who would have us believe otherwise. 

Money was their god by any other name many professed to believe; and, by ending of the Civil War all they and their trading partners in Africa and Europe had or hoped to have was "Gone With The Wind."   Virginia inspired, planted and reaped the harvest of American chattel slavery; and she suffered greatest losses during the Civil War, not Georgia or other ante-bellum citadels of pretentious living by White Christians, Jews, Cherokee and even some free persons of color.

                    Clotilde (slave ship) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The great movie version of her book inspired millions of Americans, including a sizeable number of Black females, to internalize a very false imagination of the ante-bellum south that General William Sherman among other Union generals helped to destroy.  The notion of a O'Hara or any other family in Atlanta, Savannah, Charleston, Mobile, Montgomery, New Orleans and all the other great bastions of pretentious Christianity and Judaism in America, ... ... is the mark of a talented writer. 

She wanted readers to believe and imagine her grand-parents and relative generations were somehow virtuous victims of Yankee invaders who destroyed their world of charming ambitious women like Scarlet O'Hara and men like Rhett Butler, ...

... and her gentlemanly heroic Ashley Wilkes who went out to destroy the renegade heathen ex-slave young Black men who threatened her heroine while innocently riding across a a bridge from no-where. 

In her writings such owners and beneficiaries of their "peculiar institution and southern way of life" were admired and loved by big fat happy slaves like "Mammy" and ignorant useless slave sons, brothers, uncles, etc. as background culture for writer: Alice Walker "The Color Purple."                                   

                                                Charles Kyle, born 1840

Despite virtuous portrayals by writers like Margaret Mitchell, the hidden under-belly and garments of the ante-bellum south were conscious pretentions at being gods on earth, lords over human beings, lands, rivers and even seas.   The notion about slave owners exhibiting great care and expenses on behalf of their slaves is a myth spinning about most slave-owners derived mainly because a few like Thomas Jefferson did indeed care and spend for the welfare of slaves at Monticello.  

But, to imagine even for a moment that most slave holders, including Robert E. Lee, had the attributes and character of Thomas Jefferson is akin to imagining most colonists were patriots.   The greatest expense was not in feeding and housing slaves but rather the prime prices paid to slave breeders in so-called border states like Virginia, North Carolina and Maryland. 

Such was capitalism as Madison Hemings would have known and observed it.  By ending of the war, the cotton markets, slave trading, wealth, bankers, slaves, and other trappings of the ante-bellum south were gone but not the lands taken from Native Americans whose populations had been essentially decimated by 19th century genocide initiatives by President Andrew Jackson.

The first presidential cabinet of the Confederate States of America was composed of, left to right, Secretary of the Navy Stephen R. Mallory, Attorney General Judah P. Benjamin, Secretary of War Leroy Pope Walker, President Jefferson Davis, General Robert E. Lee, Postmaster General John H. Reagan, Secretary of the Treasury Christopher G. Memminger, Vice-President Alexander H. Stephens, and Secretary of State Robert Toombs.

Culver Pictures

The men of methods and means portrayed in picture on left were not tried for treason after the Civil War but all were traitors to the cause of human liberty and the United States Government.  Judah P. Benjamin was able to relocate to London wherein he published a expert book on property. 

None of above are or were benefactors or patriots in the hearts and minds of enlightened and educated African-Americans, ... excepting perhaps Clarence Thomas varieties found in places like New Orleans where more than a few actually owned slaves.  Nicolas Augustin Metoyer of Louisiana owned 13 slaves in 1830. He and his 12 family members collectively owned 215 slaves.

Chattel slavery had grown to such an extent of wealth and privileges in America that Lincoln and others  understood the cancerous implications for not only the western United States territories but equally so Central and South America where slave plantations also flourished.  Portugal with its massive overseas empire in Brazil had imported 4.5million Africans as slaves since the early 1500s.

Had the confederate rebellion succeeded, there is no doubt slavery would have lasted well into the 20th century as a peculiar institution of human denigration in North America and South America with help from the type successful confederates who had fled to Brazil as mercenaries after America Civil War ended. 

The reality was that rebellious states put approximately 600,000 young men into the armed confederate cause.  They challenged Union loyalist states with 18.5 million White and 500,000 African heritage population; and a functional ability to put over a million young men under arms to "keep the union of states in a federal system of government."  Lincoln as Commander-In-Chief rationalized emancipation of the slaves as a military necessity so 200,000 young Black men could enlist, and another 200,000 could work in labor services like building telegraph lines and railways. Doing so was a great strategic maneuver that removed them from southern resource capabilities. 

                                                    Emancipation Patriots

United under leadership of President Abraham Lincoln (and, inspiration by Frederick Douglass) and northern governors, ... they were inspired, motivated, equipped, trained, led and deployed to defeat the rebels in southern states, wherein four million enslaved Blacks were able to contribute some 100,000 young men escaped from plantations to the Union armies; and at least twice that number in paid labor services to same for military construction activities by the Union forces.  One of the amazing young construction engineers using Black men was Andrew Carnegie. 

By contrast, confederate military use of Black men for their construction and other labor service activities paid the owners, not the slaves for tedious work like building fortifications and digging miles of trench lines. And, while there was discussion about drafting and training slaves to be soldiers, it never occurred.

Robert E. Lee said he could make soldiers out of any man; but, opposition said doing so would defeat southern doctrine that Blacks were inferior human beings and ought be allowed to have or use arms.

There were obviously some men of African heritage passing as White or Native Americans in the Confederate forces.  Post slavery claims that Blacks impressed into the cause of the rebels served in the confederate military, ... fail to ever mention the issue or records of payments for services rendered. 

Slaves did what they were told to do, or suffered the immediate and sure punishment for not doing so. The twisted rationale is akin to suggesting Jewish, Polish and other labor camp inmates of Nazi Germany served in the Axis cause during World War II.  Sure, some did but why?

Surely there were some people of African heritage, Black, Mulatto and passing for White, such as at least one Hemings descendent, who were likely induced or seduced to embrace the rebel cause but very few of them for love or money!  Most such folks were simply afraid like descendents who generations later opposed Dr. Martin Luther King's efforts to end racial segregation laws. 

Mass fear had existed during entire span of the Second American Revolution from 1787 through 1957 led by a courageous minority of men like King who understood their greatest challenge was to overcome fear in the hearts and minds of "the least of us."   They did so by invoking a Living Christ as lead.

In fact, let us not forget that Martin Luther King, Jr. was not allowed to address the National Black Baptist Convention and it was a struggle to get many Black ministers to join in his movement. The Mississippi born President of the Convention, image on right, thought King would anger White Christians against men like him and his supporters.  The Civil War had lasted from 1861 to 1865 when millions of men and women were legally freed from bondage but lived with their own memories soon reenacted when President Rutherford Hayes in 1887, less than a generation later, removed Union troops as protectors from the defeated rebel states.

Former rebel soldiers organized and led by men like Nathan Bedford Forrest reorganized at least a hundred thousand to launch a wave of terror against ex-slaves and their offspring across the south in the midst of an era that historians recall as Southern Reconstruction. 

Keep in mind that free Negroes in the Union states quickly sent approximately 100,000 young and even middle-aged Black and Mulatto men into the Union forces even before southern Blacks escaped the cotton fields and tobacco patches to join in the cause of liberty.

For all its pomp and glory for men like Robert E. Lee, the southern cause could not withstand the might of righteousness by men in blue,... both Black and White.  When the rebellion was defeated in places like Salem, Virginia the former rebels were quick to destroy much evidence of the evil institution of slavery they had codified into law and records recording it; and, then had the audacity to claim Union Army troops destroyed their records.

Indeed, when young southern White men marched off to wage war against the Union "Yankees" they left behind in the fields and other environments of chattel slavery over 400,000 young Black men no longer restrained by guns, whips, dogs and other methods known. 

When young Black men left the forced labor previously known, the southern economy of cotton harvested, packaged, shipped and sold to factories in America and Europe soon began a downward spiral that ended in utter collapse. 

By war's end, all the billions of dollars in confederate printed currency was not worth the paper it was printed on; and there was neither cotton or other goods to pay the New York and London bankers and investors who had loaned them money and purchased their bonds. 

Jefferson Davis was arrested for a short while but never tried for treason nor were any of the other culprits.  General Lee was allowed to live out his life as President of a Virginia College that quickly set about the scholarly activities of re-conserving the cherished values of Black inferiority in Virginia. But, Robert E. Lee was an honorable man. 

He betrayed George Washington who would have opposed southern secession, but yet historical view is that Lee was an honorable man. In fact, Robert E. Lee viewed the sons of African heritage Lees' Lee Patriots  as traitors to their native State Virginia but yet was he not an honorable man? 

And the rascal Judah P. Benjamin was able to escape to family and friends in the London based mercantile world of buying and selling any and everything possible to conserve their way of life exploiting others, ... especially in Africa.  The 19th century was a century of human greed versus human needs, and the attitudes and values sowed in that era would manifest itself in the 20th century. 

A federal grand jury in 1866 had indicted for treason approximately 34 former confederate military officers and other government officials, but in 1869 a full pardon was issued to all of them including Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis.  Within another decade, many ex-confederate military officers were reinstated in the United States military and even given command assignments.  It was indeed, an example of redemptive Christian theology toward the entire Lee family in Virginia including the payment of restitution for their slave plantations.

                                        Lee, Fitzhugh (1835–1905)

Most Southern rebels had truly believed in their cause to fight and die to maintain the institution of chattel slavery, and when the war was over they still sang the song with words that cried out the ideology beloved by so many who even in defeat did not surrender their beliefs that slavery was issues of property and states rights, not human beings.  But, there were many honorable men among the Southerners who understood the Civil War was a settled issue and African-Americans were free men and women.

It would require the births of at least two generations for Southern Whites in general to acknowledge that African-Americans were fully human and also in the body and spirit of a Living Christ they prayed to for empowerment, not hatred of White people.  Booker T. Washington had devoted his life in attempts to assure White Southerners that African-American masses of poor did not hate them.

Battle Hymn Of The Republic - Julia Ward Howe! - YouTube

To be sure, many wanted to believe but the flesh was weak when came down to points of action.  Yet, African-Americans up from slavery would be hypocritical to not understand that many Whites, north and south, did indeed believe and act to eliminate their tolerance of slavery.  Southern rebels marched off to war singing their fabled song below, ... unmindful of the "gospels" being sang by millions of human beings in bondage. 

                              Bonnie Blue Flag, 1861

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