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Coal Miner Integration
Home Up African American Salemites Have Sons of Coal Miners Enslaved Coal Miners Coal Miner Integration

Mary Lee Brady, Ph.D.










Coal Miner's Integration in America's primary energy industry of the 18th, 19th and first half of the 20th century required African-American coal miners to learn the language of the industry they were integrated in.  Most of this learning to earn a living in the industry occurred among men communicating and standing in fellowship with one another in a traditional education process known as apprenticeships.


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