Enlightened and educated Americans of African heritage are quite knowledgeable that earliest known social workers emerged to aid and care for liberated slaves occurred a year or so after the Civil War. Most of them came down from the seven sisters colleges to Washington, D.C. and southward. And, like the Peace Corps and Great Society Programs a hundred years later, they were funded and paid by the federal government for their perceived expertise.
Facts are that the Freedmen's Bureau though limited to 10 years and expenditures of about 17 million dollars (cost of a few days of warfare): the women from Massachusetts and other up north locations set the framework for defining and valuing social work education and training for women like Mary Church Terrell as a matter of functional Christianity (self help), not the Evangelical group beliefs commonly confused as somehow helpful. God helps those who help themselves was a rallying cry for a lot of women like:
Social Work Programs that were conceptualized, planned, programmed and organized into existence by professional social workers like William S. Howell cited below were made possible because of Presbyterian benefactors that owned enterprises like Pittsburgh Coal Company, ... and volunteer women in every neighborhood.
Government initiated programs though often proclaimed as good never ever achieved the extent, effects and success as that of privately funded volunteer based initiatives.
with questions or comments about this web site.